Ah, ESPIONAGE. Nothing got the attention of FBI agents faster than that word back in the 1960s.
In April 1967 the telephone company discovered a bunch of mysterious electrical and telephone equipment in the basement of the Chi Phi medical fraternity at Jefferson Medical College in Philadelphia. Among other items, including an assortment of random locks and keys, they found a touch-tone telephone dial pad that had been modified to make the "fourth column" touch-tone digits used to activate the military's AUTOVON telephone network.
At that point, the telephone company got the FBI involved.
You can read all about it in the FBI's file on the matter.
One of my favorite bits in the file is from an AT&T Long Lines memo on the topic. In it, the writer says the engineers did a good job figuring out what all the equipment was, but missed a few critical points:
(Accessing a military computer via dial-up and recording the output on tape? In 1967? Wow.)
They never did figure out whodoneit. Readers, any ideas? :-)